• 热塑性弹性体的介绍及应用范围
  • 本站编辑:杭州红博新材料有限公司发布日期:2020-09-23 10:55 浏览次数:

热塑性弹性体,简称TPE或TPR,是Thermoplastic rubber的缩写。是常温下具有橡胶的弹性,高温下具有可塑化成型的一类弹性体。热塑性弹性体的结构特点是由化学键组成不同的树脂段和橡胶段,树脂段凭借链间作用力形成物理交联点,橡胶段是高弹性链段,贡献弹性。塑料段的物理交联随温度的变化而呈可逆变化,显示了热塑性弹性体的塑料加工特性。因此,热塑性弹性体具有硫化橡胶的物理机械性能和热塑性塑料的工艺加工性能,是介于橡胶与树脂之间的一种新型高分子材料,常被人们称为第三代橡胶。

Thermoplastic elastomer, referred to as TPE or TPR, is the abbreviation of thermoplastic rubber. It is a kind of elastomer which has the elasticity of rubber at room temperature and can be plasticized at high temperature. The structural characteristics of thermoplastic elastomer are that different resin segments and rubber segments are composed of chemical bonds. The resin segments form physical crosslinking points by means of inter chain forces, and the rubber segments are high elastic segments, contributing to elasticity. The physical crosslinking of the plastic segment changes reversibly with the change of temperature, which shows the plastic processing characteristics of thermoplastic elastomer. Therefore, thermoplastic elastomer has the physical and mechanical properties of vulcanized rubber and processing properties of thermoplastic plastics. It is a new polymer material between rubber and resin, and is often called the third generation rubber.

自从1958 年Bayer公司首次制备出热塑性聚氨酯( TPU) 以来,TPE就得到了迅速发展,尤其是1963年苯乙烯类热塑性弹性体问世以后,关于热塑性弹性体的制备理论逐步得到完善,应用领域进一步扩大。

Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) has been developed rapidly since Bayer company first prepared TPU in 1958. Especially since the appearance of styrene thermoplastic elastomer in 1963, the preparation theory of TPU has been gradually improved and the application field has been further expanded.

热塑性弹性体是介于橡胶与树脂之间的一种新型高分子材料,不仅可以取代部分橡胶,还能使塑料得到改性。热塑性弹性体所具有的橡胶与塑料的双重性能和宽广的特性,使之在橡胶工业中广泛用于制造胶鞋、胶布等日用制品和胶管、胶带、胶条、胶板、胶件以及胶粘剂等各种工业用品。同时,热塑性弹性体还可代替橡胶大量用在PVC、PE、PP、PS等通用热塑性树脂甚至PU、PA、CA等工程塑料的改性上面,使塑料工业也出现了崭新的局面。

Thermoplastic elastomer is a new polymer material between rubber and resin. It can not only replace part of rubber, but also modify plastics. Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) is widely used in the rubber industry for the manufacture of rubber shoes, rubber cloth and other daily products, as well as various industrial products such as rubber hose, tape, rubber strip, rubber plate, rubber parts, adhesives and so on. At the same time, thermoplastic elastomer can also replace rubber and be widely used in the modification of general thermoplastic resins such as PVC, PE, PP, PS, and even engineering plastics such as PU, PA, CA, which makes a new situation in the plastic industry.

热塑性弹性体可概括为通用TPE和工程TPE两个类型,目前己发展到l0大类30多个品种。从1938年德国Bayer最早发现聚氨酯类TPE,1963年和1965年美国Phillips和Shell,开发出苯乙烯—丁二烯—苯乙烯嵌段聚合物TPE,到70年代美欧日各国开始批量生产烯烃类TPE以来,技术不断创新,新的TPE品种不断涌现,构成了当今TPE的庞大体系,使橡胶工业与塑料工业结合联姻大大向前迈进了一步。 世界上已工业化生产的TPE有:苯乙烯类(SBS、SIS、SEBS、SEPS)、烯烃类(TP0、TPV)、双烯类(TPB、TPI)、氯乙烯类(TPVC、TCPE)、氨酯类(TPU)、酯类(TPEE)、酰胺类(TPAE)、有机氟类(TPF)、有机硅类和乙烯类等,几乎涵盖了现在合成橡胶与合成树脂的所有领域。

Thermoplastic elastomers can be classified into two types: General TPE and engineering TPE. At present, TPE has been developed to more than 30 varieties in 10 categories. Polyurethane TPE was first discovered by Bayer of Germany in 1938, and styrene butadiene styrene block polymer TPE was developed by Phillips and shell in 1963 and 1965. Since 1970s, olefin TPE has been produced in the United States, Europe and Japan in large quantities. New TPE products have been emerging, forming a huge system of TPE today, which combines rubber industry with plastic industry Marriage is a big step forward. The industrial TPEs produced in the world include styrene (SBS, SIS, SEBS, SEPs), olefins (tp0, TPV), dienes (TPB, TPI), vinyl chloride (tpvc, tcpe), aminoesters (TPU), esters (TPEE), amides (tpae), organic fluorine (TPF), silicone and ethylene, etc., covering almost all fields of synthetic rubber and synthetic resin 。

热塑性弹性体具有硫化橡胶的物理机械性能和软质塑料的工艺加工性能。由于不需再像橡胶那样经过热硫化,因而使用简单的塑料加工机械即可很容易地制成最终产品。它的这一特点,使橡胶工业生产流程缩短了l/4,节约能耗25%~40%,提高效率10~20倍,堪称橡胶工业又一次材料和工艺技术革命。

Thermoplastic elastomer has the physical and mechanical properties of vulcanized rubber and processing properties of soft plastics. Since it is no longer necessary to heat vulcanize like rubber, the final product can be easily made with simple plastic processing machinery. With this feature, the production process of rubber industry is shortened by 1 / 4, energy consumption is saved by 25% - 40%, and efficiency is increased by 10-20 times. It can be called another revolution of material and technology in rubber industry.

制造加工热塑性弹性体的主要两种方法是挤塑和注塑成型,模塑成型用得极少。通过注塑成型来制造加工热塑性弹性体,既快速又经济。用于一般热塑性塑料的注塑成型方法和设备均适用于热塑性弹性体。

The two main methods of manufacturing thermoplastic elastomer are extrusion and injection molding, and molding is rarely used. It is fast and economical to manufacture and process thermoplastic elastomer by injection molding. The injection molding methods and equipment used for general thermoplastics are suitable for thermoplastic elastomers.

热塑性弹性体还可通过吹塑、热成型以及热焊接进行加工。而这些方法均不能应用于热固性橡胶制品。

Thermoplastic elastomers can also be processed by blow molding, thermoforming and thermal welding. These methods can not be applied to thermosetting rubber products.

热塑性弹性体在加工应用上有以下特点:

Thermoplastic elastomer has the following characteristics in processing and application

1、可用标准的热塑性塑料加工设备和工艺进行加工成型,如挤出、注射、吹塑等。

1. Standard thermoplastic processing equipment and technology can be used for processing and molding, such as extrusion, injection, blow molding, etc.

2、不需硫化,可制备生产橡胶制品,减少硫化工序,节约投资,能耗低,工艺简单、加工周期缩短,生产效率提高,加工费用低。

2. Without vulcanization, rubber products can be prepared and produced, reducing vulcanization process, saving investment, low energy consumption, simple process, shortening processing cycle, improving production efficiency and low processing cost.

3、边角废料可回收使用,节省资源,也对环境保护有利。

3. The waste can be recycled, save resources, and is beneficial to environmental protection.

4、由于在高温下易软化,所制产品的使用温度有一定限制。

4. Because it is easy to soften at high temperature, the service temperature of the product is limited.


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